“The only place where success comes before work is in the dictionary.”
Studying is the primary activity in a student’s college experience. In order to do well in college, a student must learn how to study. This term can be very unclear and mean many different things for different people. Therefore, it is helpful to create a personal definition of the term studying. Webster defines studying as a state of contemplation. Another dictionary defines studying as devoting time and attention to acquiring knowledge. Both meanings demonstrate that studying requires an investment of time. In order to truly understand a new subject, a person must invest the time and mental energy to develop an effective comprehension of the material being studied.
The Expectation of Study
As a college student, it is critical to realize that you will be expected to invest a substantial amount of time into gaining an understanding of the material covered in your courses. There is no substitute for time; there is nothing you can do in the place of studying, that is spending time thinking and learning about course content.
After accepting the fact that investing time is a necessary component of studying, the second reality a student must reconcile within themselves is that there is value in the material being studied. You must identify the value of the content you are being asked to learn and identify how the new material can be incorporated into your life and contribute to your growth. For example, taking a psychology course may help you improve your personal relationships by gaining a better understanding of how other people think and make decisions. Therefore, it is possible for you to have more positive experiences in your relationships through this increased awareness of others.
The value of the content will vary according to the individual. However, students are typically less inclined to invest time into learning a subject where they perceive there is low value. It is common to take courses in subject areas that do not interest in order to meet the degree requirements. However, in these instances, you can still develop valuable skills and gain insight from the course. Let’s say that your degree requires that you take a science course but you have absolutely no interest in this subject. It is possible for you to improve your ability to commit to a difficult task that you do not necessarily enjoy. Also, this experience may teach you to remain open-minded regarding exploring new content.
Thirdly, it is important to develop a study mindset. One of the most important characteristics of the study mindset is to be open to being uncomfortable. Learning new material can be very uncomfortable and challenging, simply because it is new. You are learning new terms and being faced with information you have never heard of before.
Effective studying involves mental engagement, it is an absolute must! You will never fully understand a new concept unless you are giving it serious consideration. To study a subject indicates that you are actively engaged in thinking about it. This process of mental engagement may also include formulating new ideas about the concepts and challenging the material.
The Emotional Context
Studying can be a very emotional process. It can be exhilarating to finally grasp a concept that you have struggled to understand. Imagine that you have been studying math for a few hours. You have taken several practice tests and there seem to be few equations that you just do not understand. After noticing yourself becoming very frustrated, you decide to take a walk to calm down. When you return to your homework, everything seems to just click in your mind and the problems that were confusing seem to make sense now. Suddenly, you exhale and shout joyously. You have just experience the joy of learning.
On the other hand, it can be really difficult. Wondering if you will ever comprehend what you are studying is a common feeling. As you engage in the process of studying, you may feel a nervous sensation in your stomach, along with feelings of wanting to escape and do something you enjoy. These are all signs that you are on the right track. The challenge is to remain in the moment long enough to overcome the negative feelings and progress to learning the material.
Although studying can be difficult, the reward of using the knowledge you gained creates a powerful feeling. Here’s an example: Imagine that you took a Human Nutrition course and really learned a lot about how your body digests food. As a result of your new insight, you changed your eating habits and now have more energy. This is an example of how studying and applying knowledge can improve your life for the better.
Now that we have defined studying, explored some of the emotions associated with it and recognized the benefits, let’s move forward with strategies to help you improve your studying process.
Why It Matters: Study Skills
Throughout your college career, you’ll be responsible for completing a lot of different types of “assessments”: pre-quizzes, essays, group projects, tests, exams, etc. Teachers assign these in order to mark your learning. In order to prepare for these assessments, it’s important that you study—and study effectively.
Marcel is just starting his freshman year of college. He knows he has to study in order to get good grades, but he finds himself pushing off his homework until the last minute. Marcel rarely completes his reading assignments—even when he doesn’t understand the material discussed in class. As the semester goes on, he finds himself doing multi-hour cram session right before each test starts, hoping he’ll retain the material at least as long as it takes to complete the test.
Can you identify the problems in Marcel’s study habits? More importantly, can you identify any more effective strategies he might implement? In this section, we’ll learn how to effectively prepare for different assignments as they come, as well as how to use your results to shape your later studies.
Setting Yourself Up for Success
Too many students try to get the grade just by going to class, maybe a little note-taking, and then cramming through the text right before an exam they feel unprepared for. Sound familiar? This approach may have worked for you in high school where tests and quizzes were more frequent and teachers prepared study guides for you, but colleges require you to take responsibility for your learning and to be better prepared.
Most students simply have not learned how to study and don’t understand how learning works. Learning is actually a cycle of four steps: preparing, absorbing, capturing, and reviewing. When you get in the habit of paying attention to this cycle, it becomes relatively easy to study well. But you must use all four steps.
This chapter focuses on listening, a key skill for learning new material, and note-taking, the most important skill in the capturing phase of the cycle. These skills are closely related. Good listening skills make you a better note taker, and taking good notes can help you listen better. Both are key study skills to help you do better in your classes.
The Learning Cycle
Identifying What’s Important
Whether you take one or more than one class, it’s simply impossible to retain every single particle of information you encounter in a textbook or lecture. And, instructors don’t generally give open-book exams or allow their students to preview the quizzes or tests ahead of time. So, how can you decide what to study and “know what to know”?
The answer is to prioritize what you’re trying to learn and memorize, rather than trying to tackle all of it. Below are some strategies to help you do this.
Think about concepts rather than facts
From time to time, you’ll need to memorize cold, hard facts—like a list of math equations or a vocabulary list in a Spanish class. Most of the time, though, instructors will care much more that you are learning about the key concepts in a subject or course—i.e., how photosynthesis works, how to write a thesis statement, the causes of the French Revolution, and so on.
Take cues from your instructor
Pay attention to what your instructor writes on the board or includes in study guides and handouts. Although these may be short—just a list of words and phrases, say—they are likely core concepts that you’ll want to focus on. Also, instructors tend to refer to important concepts repeatedly during class, and they may even tell you what’s important to know before an exam or other assessment.
Look for key terms
Textbooks will often put key terms in bold or italics. These terms and their definitions are usually important and can help you remember larger concepts.
Textbooks often have summaries or study guides at the end of each chapter. These summaries are a good way to check in and see whether you grasp the main elements of the reading. If no summary is available, try to write your own—you’ll learn much more by writing about what you read than by reading alone.
Sometimes students will feel confident understanding new material they just learned. Then, weeks later before an exam, they find that they can only remember what the instructor covered during the last few days—the earlier material has vanished from the mind! What happened? Chances are that they didn’t consistently and regularly review the material, and what they initially learned never made it to long-term memory.
When you learn something new, the goal is to “lock it in “and move it from short-term memory, where it starts out, to long-term memory, where it can be accessed much later (like at the end of the semester or maybe years from now). Below are some strategies for transferring short-term memory to long-term memory:
Start reviewing new material immediately
Remember that people typically forget a significant amount of new information not too long after learning it. As a student, you can benefit from starting to study new material right away. If you’re introduced to new concepts in class, for example, don’t wait to start reviewing your notes and doing the related reading assignments—the sooner the better.
Study frequently for shorter periods of time
Study frequently for shorter periods of time: Once information becomes a part of long-term memory, you’re more likely to remember it. If you want to improve the odds of recalling course material by the time of an exam (or a future class, say), try reviewing it a little bit every day. Building up your knowledge and recall this way can also help you avoid needing to “cram” and feeling overwhelmed by everything you’ve may have forgotten.
This strategy is linked to studying material frequently for shorter periods of time. You may not remember when or how you learned skills like riding a bike or tying your shoes. Mastery came with practice, and at some point the skills became second nature.
Academic learning is no different: If you spend enough time with important course concepts and practice them often, you will know them in the same way you know how to ride a bike—almost without thinking about them.
For more advanced study skills and memory building techniques, click here.
In Real Life
Sarah and Jessica
Sarah and Jessica are both taking PSYC 200 Introduction to Psychology. They sat next to each other during the first day of class and decided to heed the instructor’s advice of forming a study group.
In order to prepare for their first psychology exam, Sarah and Jessica agreed to study together. Jessica reviewed Sarah’s notes and was quite surprised and embarrassed. Sarah had notes from each lecture and chapter that they had covered in the semester. Jessica did not really take notes in class. She wrote down the topics of the day but she often doodled and daydreamed in class. Regarding notes from the textbook, she occasionally listed a few vocabulary words.
Sarah’s lecture notes consisted of the main points the professor covered in class with supporting details for each point. Sarah even included examples from movies, songs, and her real life where she had seen examples of the psychological theories demonstrated. Sarah jotted down questions of concepts that she did not understand and wanted the professor to clarify. For their textbook, she had equally detailed notes. She defined all the terms and gave examples of how they connected to each other.
Jessica asked Sarah why she wrote all these things down. Sarah explained that learning about psychology was a new experience for her since had never taken this course before and that she needed to explain things in great detail in order to understand the concepts. Jessica started to feel very overwhelmed and ill-prepared to study with Sarah. She thought about how she could avoid sharing her notes with Sarah. Escaping the study session was the only solution in her mind.
Jessica then sent herself a text which beeped on her phone. She told Sarah that she suddenly had to go home to babysit her little sister since their mother was called into work. Sarah was clueless about Jessica’s feelings. She told Jessica that she understood the importance of supporting family and suggested that they reschedule their study session before the exam.
- Suppose you were Jessica, how would you have handled this situation?
- Why do you think Jessica gave herself an excuse to leave the situation?
- What could be the consequences of Jessica leaving the study session?
- What are other ways Jessica could have handled this situation?
- What emotions do you feel while studying?
- Which emotions enhance or hinder your studying?
- What are your current methods of studying?
- Which study methods would you like to improve?